So what exactly is -ffunction-sections and how does it reduce binary size?

If you’d like a more up-to-date version of ShellCheck than what Raspbian provides, you can build your own on a Raspberry Pi Zero in a little over 21 hours.

Alternatively, as of last week, you can also download RPi compatible, statically linked armv6hf binaries of every new commit and stable release.

It’s statically linked — i.e. the executable has all its library dependencies built in — so you can expect it to be pretty big. However, I didn’t expect it to be 67MB:

build@d1044ff3bf67:/mnt/shellcheck# ls -l shellcheck
-rwxr-xr-x 1 build build 66658032 Jul 14 16:04 shellcheck

This is for a tool intended to run on devices with 512MiB RAM. strip helps shed a lot of that weight, and the post-stripped number is the one we’ll use from now on, but 36MB is still more than I expected, especially given that the x86_64 build is 23MB.

build@d1044ff3bf67:/mnt/shellcheck# strip --strip-all shellcheck
build@d1044ff3bf67:/mnt/shellcheck# ls -l shellcheck
-rwxr-xr-x 1 build build 35951068 Jul 14 16:22 shellcheck

So now what? Optimize for size? Here’s ghc -optlo-Os to enable LLVM opt size optimizations, including a complete three hour Qemu emulated rebuild of all dependencies:

build@31ef6588fdf1:/mnt/shellcheck# ls -l shellcheck
-rwxr-xr-x 1 build build 32051676 Jul 14 22:38 shellcheck

Welp, that’s not nearly enough.

The real problem is that we’re linking in both C and Haskell dependencies, from the JSON formatters and Regex libraries to bignum implemenations and the Haskell runtime itself. These have tons of functionality that ShellCheck doesn’t use, but which is still included as part of the package.

Fortunately, GCC and GHC allow eliminating this kind of dead code through function sections. Let’s look at how that works, and why dead code can’t just be eliminated as a matter of course:

An ELF binary contains a lot of different things, each stored in a section. It can have any number of these sections, each of which has a pile of attributes including a name:

  • .text stores executable code
  • .data stores global variable values
  • .symtab stores the symbol table
  • Ever wondered where compilers embed debug info? Sections.
  • Exception unwinding data, compiler version or build IDs? Sections.

This is how strip is able to safely and efficiently drop so much data: if a section has been deemed unnecessary, it’s simple and straight forward to drop it without affecting the rest of the executable.

Let’s have a look at some real data. Here’s a simple foo.c:

int foo() { return 42; }
int bar() { return foo(); }

We can compile it with gcc -c foo.c -o foo.o and examine the sections:

$ readelf -a foo.o
ELF Header:
  Magic:   7f 45 4c 46 01 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
  Class:        ELF32
  Data:         2's complement, little endian
  Version:      1 (current)
  OS/ABI:       UNIX - System V
  ABI Version:  0
  Type:         REL (Relocatable file)
  Machine:      ARM

Section Headers:
  [Nr] Name       Type      Addr   Off    Size   ES Flg Lk Inf Al
  [ 0]            NULL      000000 000000 000000 00      0   0  0
  [ 1] .text      PROGBITS  000000 000034 000034 00  AX  0   0  4
  [ 2] .rel.text  REL       000000 000190 000008 08   I  8   1  4
  [ 3] .data      PROGBITS  000000 000068 000000 00  WA  0   0  1
  [ 4] .bss       NOBITS    000000 000068 000000 00  WA  0   0  1

Symbol table '.symtab' contains 11 entries:
   Num:    Value  Size Type    Bind   Vis      Ndx Name
     9: 00000000    28 FUNC    GLOBAL DEFAULT    1 foo
    10: 0000001c    24 FUNC    GLOBAL DEFAULT    1 bar

There’s tons more info not included here, and it’s an interesting read in its own right. Anyways, both our functions live in the .text segment. We can see this from the symbol table’s Ndx column which says section 1, corresponding to .text. We can also see it in the disassembly:

$ objdump -d foo.o
foo.o:     file format elf32-littlearm

Disassembly of section .text:
00000000 <foo>:
   0:   e52db004   push    {fp}
   4:   e28db000   add     fp, sp, #0
   8:   e3a0302a   mov     r3, #42 ; 0x2a
   c:   e1a00003   mov     r0, r3
  10:   e28bd000   add     sp, fp, #0
  14:   e49db004   pop     {fp}
  18:   e12fff1e   bx      lr

0000001c <bar>:
  1c:   e92d4800   push    {fp, lr}
  20:   e28db004   add     fp, sp, #4
  24:   ebfffffe   bl      0 <foo>
  28:   e1a03000   mov     r3, r0
  2c:   e1a00003   mov     r0, r3
  30:   e8bd8800   pop     {fp, pc}

Now lets say that the only library function we use is foo, and we want bar removed from the final binary. This is tricky, because you can’t just modify a .text segment by slicing things out of it. There are offsets, addresses and cross-dependencies compiled into the code, and any shifts would mean trying to patch that all up. If only it was as easy as when strip removed whole sections…

This is where gcc -ffunction-sections and ghc -split-sections come in. Let’s recompile our file with gcc -ffunction-sections foo.c -c -o foo.o:

$ readelf -a foo.o
Section Headers:
  [Nr] Name          Type      Addr  Off  Size ES Flg Lk Inf Al
  [ 0]               NULL      00000 0000 0000 00      0   0  0
  [ 1] .text         PROGBITS  00000 0034 0000 00  AX  0   0  1
  [ 2] .data         PROGBITS  00000 0034 0000 00  WA  0   0  1
  [ 3] .bss          NOBITS    00000 0034 0000 00  WA  0   0  1
  [ 4]     PROGBITS  00000 0034 001c 00  AX  0   0  4
  [ 5]     PROGBITS  00000 0050 001c 00  AX  0   0  4
  [ 6] REL       00000 01c0 0008 08   I 10   5  4

Symbol table '.symtab' contains 14 entries:
   Num:    Value  Size Type    Bind   Vis      Ndx Name
12: 00000000    28 FUNC    GLOBAL DEFAULT    4 foo
13: 00000000    28 FUNC    GLOBAL DEFAULT    5 bar

Look at that! Each function now has its very own section.

This means that a linker can go through and find all the sections that contain symbols we need, and drop the rest. We can enable it with the aptly named ld flag --gc-sections. You can pass that flag to ld via gcc using gcc -Wl,--gc-sections. And you can pass that whole thing to gcc via ghc using ghc -optc-Wl,--gc-sections

I enabled all of this in my builder’s .cabal/config:

  gcc-options: -Os -Wl,--gc-sections -ffunction-sections -fdata-sections
  ghc-options: -optc-Os -optlo-Os -split-sections

With this in place, the ShellCheck binary became a mere 14.5MB:

-rw-r--r-- 1 build build 14503356 Jul 15 10:01 shellcheck

That’s less than half the size we started out with. I’ve since applied the same flags to the x86_64 build, which brought it down from 23MB to 7MB. Snappier downloads and installs for all!

For anyone interested in compiling Haskell for armv6hf on x86_64, I spent weeks trying to get cross-compilation going, but in the end (and with many hacks) I was only able to cross-compile armv7. In the end I gave up and took the same approach as with the Windows build blog post: a Docker image runs the Raspbian armv6 userland in Qemu user emulation mode.

I didn’t even have to set up Qemu. There’s tooling from for building ARM Docker containers for IoT purposes. ShellCheck (ab)uses this to run emulated GHC and cabal. Everything Just Works, if slowly.

The Dockerfile is available on GitHub as koalaman/armv6hf-builder.

ShellCheck and shadowed case branches

As of the the latest commit, ShellCheck will try to detect shadowed case branches.

Here’s an adaptation from an unnamed script on GitHub:

case $1 in
        exit 0
        die "Unknown option: $1"

The original case statement was significantly longer, so you’d be excused for not noticing the problem: -h is used for two different branches. Because of this, -h as a short option for --hub will not work.

If you run ShellCheck on this example now, you will get a pair of helpful warnings:

Line 4:
    ^-- SC2221: This pattern always overrides a later one.
Line 8:
    ^-- SC2222: This pattern never matches because of a previous pattern.

Very simple and probably somewhat useful in certain cases, right? Well, it gets slightly more interesting.

Here is another example adapted from the wild:

case $1 in
        die "Unknown option: $1"

Did you spot the same problem? ShellCheck did:

Line 4:
              ^-- SC2221: This pattern always overrides a later one.

Since an unescaped ? matches any character, it will match also match -v, so the short form of --verbose will not work.

Similarly, it recognizes two separate issues in this example:

    -*|--*) die "Invalid option: $1" ;;
    --) shift; break ;;

The end-of-option -- marker will never be recognized, and -*|--* is redundant because the first already covers the second.

These are all very simple cases, but this also works more generally. Here’s a fabricated music sorting script where the bug would be exceedingly hard to spot in a longer list of bands:

case "${filename,,}" in
  *"abba"*.mp3 ) rm "$filename" ;;
  *"black"*"sabbath"*.mp3 ) mv "$filename" "Music/Metal" ;;

So how does it work?

There are very clever ways of determining whether one regular language is a superset of another by intersecting it with the complement of the other, and checking the result for satisfiability.

ShellCheck uses none of them.

I’ve written a regex inverter before, and that level of complexity was not something I wanted to introduce.

Instead, ShellCheck’s pattern intersection and superset supports only basic DOS style wildcard patterns: ?, * and literals. It just does a simple recursive match on the two patterns.

Let’s call the patterns A and B, and we wish to check if A is a superset of B, i.e. if A matches everything that B does.

We have two arbitrary shell patterns that we want to turn into a simplified form, while ensuring we don’t simplify away any details that will cause a false positive. ShellCheck does this in two ways:

It creates A in such a way that it’s guaranteed to match a (non-strict) subset of the actual glob. This just means giving up on any pattern that uses features we don’t explicitly recognize. $(cmd)foo@(ab|c) is rejected, while *foo* is allowed.

It then creates B to guarantee that it matches a (non-strict) superset of the actual glob. This is done by replacing anything we don’t support with a *. $(cmd)foo@(ab|c) just becomes *foo*.

Now we can just match the two patterns against each other with an inefficient but simple recursive matcher. Matching two patterns is slightly trickier than matching a pattern against a string, but it’s still a first year level CS exercise.

It just involves breaking down the patterns by prefix, and matching until you reach a trivial base case:

  • superset(“”, “”) = True
  • superset(“”, cY) = False
  • superset(cX, cY) = superset(X, Y)
  • superset(*X, *Y) = superset(*X, Y)

The actual code calls the simplified patterns “PseudoGlobs”, inhabited by PGAny ?, PGMany *, and PGChar c:

pseudoGlobIsSuperSetof :: [PseudoGlob] -> [PseudoGlob] -> Bool
pseudoGlobIsSuperSetof = matchable
    matchable x@(xf:xs) y@(yf:ys) =
        case (xf, yf) of
            (PGMany, PGMany) -> matchable x ys
            (PGMany, _) -> matchable x ys || matchable xs y
            (_, PGMany) -> False
            (PGAny, _) -> matchable xs ys
            (_, PGAny) -> False
            (_, _) -> xf == yf && matchable xs ys

    matchable [] [] = True
    matchable (PGMany : rest) [] = matchable rest []
    matchable _ _ = False

That’s really all there is to it. ShellCheck just goes through each pattern, and flags the first pattern (if any) that it shadows. There’s also a pattern simplifier which rearranges c*?*?****d into c??*d to add some efficiency to obviously diseased patterns.

Future work could include supporting character sets/ranges since [yY] is at least occasionally used, but it’s rare to find any extglob to warrant full regex support.

Of course, 99% of the time, there are no duplicates. 99.9% of the time, you’d get the same result with simple string matches.

However, that 0.1% of cases where you get delightful insights like -? shadowing -v or Linux-3.1* shadowing Linux-3.12* makes it all worthwhile.

Paste shell script, get feedback: ShellCheck project update

tl;dr: ShellCheck is a bash/sh static analysis and linting tool. Paste a shell command or script on and get feedback about many common issues, both in scripts that currently fail and scripts that appear to work just fine.

There’s been a lot of progress since I first posted about it seven months ago. It has a new home on with a simplified and improved interface, and the parser has been significantly bugfixed so that parsing errors for correct code are now fairly rare.

However, the best thing is that it can detect a heaping bunch of new problems! This post mentions merely a subset of them.


Quiz: ShellCheck is aware of many common usage problems. Are you?

  • find . -name *.mp3
  • sudo echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches
  • PS1='\e[0;32m\$\e[0m '
  • find . | grep "*.mp3"
  • [ $n > 7 ]
  • [[ $n > 7 ]]
  • tr 'A-Z' 'a-z'
  • cmd 2>&1 > log
  • array=(1, 2, 3)
  • echo $10
  • [[ $a=$b ]]
  • [[ $a = $b ]]
  • progress=$((i/total*100))
  • trap "echo \"Time used: $SECONDS\"" EXIT
  • find dir -exec cp {} /backup && rm {} \;
  • [[ $keep = [yY] ]] && mv file /backup || rm file

ShellCheck gives more helpful messages for many Bash syntax errors

Bash says ShellCheck points to the exact position and says
: command not found Literal carriage return. Run script through tr -d ‘\r’
unexpected token: `fi’ Can’t have empty then clauses (use ‘true’ as a no-op)
unexpected token `(‘ Shells are space sensitive. Use ‘< <(cmd)', not '<<(cmd)'
unexpected token `(‘ ‘(‘ is invalid here. Did you forget to escape it?
echo foo: command not found This is a &nbsp;. Delete it and retype as space.

ShellCheck suggests style improvements

Code ShellCheck suggestion
basename "$var" Use parameter expansion instead, such as ${var##*/}
ls | grep 'mp3$' Don’t use ls | grep. Use a glob or a for loop with a condition.
expr 3 + 2 Use $((..)), ${} or [[ ]] in place of antiquated expr.
cat foo | grep bar Useless cat. Consider ‘cmd < file | ..' or 'cmd file | ..' instead.
length=$(echo "$var" | wc -c") See if you can use ${#variable} instead

ShellCheck recognizes common but wrong attempts at doing things

Code ShellCheck tip
var$n=42 For indirection, use (associative) arrays or ‘read “var$n” <<< "value"'".
(Bash says “var3=42: command not found”)
${var$n} To expand via indirection, use name=”foo$n”; echo “${!name}”
(Bash says “bad substitution”. )
echo 'It\'s time' Are you trying to escape that single quote? echo ‘You’\”re doing it wrong’
(Bash says “unexpected end of file”)
[ grep a b ] Use ‘if cmd; then ..’ to check exit code, or ‘if [[ $(cmd) == .. ]]’ to check output
(Bash says “[: a: binary operator expected”)
var=grep a b To assign the output of a command, use var=$(cmd)
(Bash says “a: command not found”)

ShellCheck can help with POSIX sh compliance and bashisms

When a script is declared with #!/bin/sh, ShellCheck checks for POSIX sh compliance, much like checkbashisms.

ShellCheck is free software, and can be used online and locally

ShellCheck is of course Free Software, and has a cute cli frontend in addition to the primary online version.

ShellCheck wants your feedback and suggestions!
Does ShellCheck give you incorrect suggestions? Does it fail to parse your working code? Is there something it could have warned about, but didn’t? After pasting a script on, a tiny “submit feedback” link appears in the top right of the annotated script area. Click it to submit the code plus your comments, and I can take a look!