ShellCheck and shadowed case branches

As of the the latest commit, ShellCheck will try to detect shadowed case branches.

Here’s an adaptation from an unnamed script on GitHub:

case $1 in
    -h|--help)
        help
        exit 0
        ;;
    -h|--hub)
        hub=$2
        shift
        ;;
    *)
        die "Unknown option: $1"
        ;;
esac

The original case statement was significantly longer, so you’d be excused for not noticing the problem: -h is used for two different branches. Because of this, -h as a short option for --hub will not work.

If you run ShellCheck on this example now, you will get a pair of helpful warnings:

Line 4:
    -h|--help)
    ^-- SC2221: This pattern always overrides a later one.
 
Line 8:
    -h|--hub)
    ^-- SC2222: This pattern never matches because of a previous pattern.

Very simple and probably somewhat useful in certain cases, right? Well, it gets slightly more interesting.

Here is another example adapted from the wild:

case $1 in
    -h|--help|-?)
        usage
        exit
        ;;
    -v|--verbose)
        verbose=1
        ;;
    *)
        die "Unknown option: $1"
        ;;
esac

Did you spot the same problem? ShellCheck did:

Line 4:
    -h|--help|-?)
              ^-- SC2221: This pattern always overrides a later one.

Since an unescaped ? matches any character, it will match also match -v, so the short form of --verbose will not work.

Similarly, it recognizes two separate issues in this example:

    -*|--*) die "Invalid option: $1" ;;
    --) shift; break ;;

The end-of-option -- marker will never be recognized, and -*|--* is redundant because the first already covers the second.

These are all very simple cases, but this also works more generally. Here’s a fabricated music sorting script where the bug would be exceedingly hard to spot in a longer list of bands:

case "${filename,,}" in
  *"abba"*.mp3 ) rm "$filename" ;;
  *"black"*"sabbath"*.mp3 ) mv "$filename" "Music/Metal" ;;
esac

So how does it work?

There are very clever ways of determining whether one regular language is a superset of another by intersecting it with the complement of the other, and checking the result for satisfiability.

ShellCheck uses none of them.

I’ve written a regex inverter before, and that level of complexity was not something I wanted to introduce.

Instead, ShellCheck’s pattern intersection and superset supports only basic DOS style wildcard patterns: ?, * and literals. It just does a simple recursive match on the two patterns.

Let’s call the patterns A and B, and we wish to check if A is a superset of B, i.e. if A matches everything that B does.

We have two arbitrary shell patterns that we want to turn into a simplified form, while ensuring we don’t simplify away any details that will cause a false positive. ShellCheck does this in two ways:

It creates A in such a way that it’s guaranteed to match a (non-strict) subset of the actual glob. This just means giving up on any pattern that uses features we don’t explicitly recognize. $(cmd)foo@(ab|c) is rejected, while *foo* is allowed.

It then creates B to guarantee that it matches a (non-strict) superset of the actual glob. This is done by replacing anything we don’t support with a *. $(cmd)foo@(ab|c) just becomes *foo*.

Now we can just match the two patterns against each other with an inefficient but simple recursive matcher. Matching two patterns is slightly trickier than matching a pattern against a string, but it’s still a first year level CS exercise.

It just involves breaking down the patterns by prefix, and matching until you reach a trivial base case:

  • superset(“”, “”) = True
  • superset(“”, cY) = False
  • superset(cX, cY) = superset(X, Y)
  • superset(*X, *Y) = superset(*X, Y)

The actual code calls the simplified patterns “PseudoGlobs”, inhabited by PGAny ?, PGMany *, and PGChar c:

pseudoGlobIsSuperSetof :: [PseudoGlob] -> [PseudoGlob] -> Bool
pseudoGlobIsSuperSetof = matchable
  where
    matchable x@(xf:xs) y@(yf:ys) =
        case (xf, yf) of
            (PGMany, PGMany) -> matchable x ys
            (PGMany, _) -> matchable x ys || matchable xs y
            (_, PGMany) -> False
            (PGAny, _) -> matchable xs ys
            (_, PGAny) -> False
            (_, _) -> xf == yf && matchable xs ys

    matchable [] [] = True
    matchable (PGMany : rest) [] = matchable rest []
    matchable _ _ = False

That’s really all there is to it. ShellCheck just goes through each pattern, and flags the first pattern (if any) that it shadows. There’s also a pattern simplifier which rearranges c*?*?****d into c??*d to add some efficiency to obviously diseased patterns.

Future work could include supporting character sets/ranges since [yY] is at least occasionally used, but it’s rare to find any extglob to warrant full regex support.

Of course, 99% of the time, there are no duplicates. 99.9% of the time, you’d get the same result with simple string matches.

However, that 0.1% of cases where you get delightful insights like -? shadowing -v or Linux-3.1* shadowing Linux-3.12* makes it all worthwhile.

Paste shell script, get feedback: ShellCheck project update

tl;dr: ShellCheck is a bash/sh static analysis and linting tool. Paste a shell command or script on ShellCheck.net and get feedback about many common issues, both in scripts that currently fail and scripts that appear to work just fine.

There’s been a lot of progress since I first posted about it seven months ago. It has a new home on ShellCheck.net with a simplified and improved interface, and the parser has been significantly bugfixed so that parsing errors for correct code are now fairly rare.

However, the best thing is that it can detect a heaping bunch of new problems! This post mentions merely a subset of them.

 

Quiz: ShellCheck is aware of many common usage problems. Are you?

  • find . -name *.mp3
  • sudo echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches
  • PS1='\e[0;32m\$\e[0m '
  • find . | grep "*.mp3"
  • [ $n > 7 ]
  • [[ $n > 7 ]]
  • tr 'A-Z' 'a-z'
  • cmd 2>&1 > log
  • array=(1, 2, 3)
  • echo $10
  • [[ $a=$b ]]
  • [[ $a = $b ]]
  • progress=$((i/total*100))
  • trap "echo \"Time used: $SECONDS\"" EXIT
  • find dir -exec cp {} /backup && rm {} \;
  • [[ $keep = [yY] ]] && mv file /backup || rm file

 
 
ShellCheck gives more helpful messages for many Bash syntax errors

Bash says ShellCheck points to the exact position and says
: command not found Literal carriage return. Run script through tr -d ‘\r’
unexpected token: `fi’ Can’t have empty then clauses (use ‘true’ as a no-op)
unexpected token `(‘ Shells are space sensitive. Use ‘< <(cmd)', not '<<(cmd)'
unexpected token `(‘ ‘(‘ is invalid here. Did you forget to escape it?
echo foo: command not found This is a &nbsp;. Delete it and retype as space.

 
 
ShellCheck suggests style improvements

Code ShellCheck suggestion
basename "$var" Use parameter expansion instead, such as ${var##*/}
ls | grep 'mp3$' Don’t use ls | grep. Use a glob or a for loop with a condition.
expr 3 + 2 Use $((..)), ${} or [[ ]] in place of antiquated expr.
cat foo | grep bar Useless cat. Consider ‘cmd < file | ..' or 'cmd file | ..' instead.
length=$(echo "$var" | wc -c") See if you can use ${#variable} instead

 
 
ShellCheck recognizes common but wrong attempts at doing things

Code ShellCheck tip
var$n=42 For indirection, use (associative) arrays or ‘read “var$n” <<< "value"'".
(Bash says “var3=42: command not found”)
${var$n} To expand via indirection, use name=”foo$n”; echo “${!name}”
(Bash says “bad substitution”. )
echo 'It\'s time' Are you trying to escape that single quote? echo ‘You’\”re doing it wrong’
(Bash says “unexpected end of file”)
[ grep a b ] Use ‘if cmd; then ..’ to check exit code, or ‘if [[ $(cmd) == .. ]]’ to check output
(Bash says “[: a: binary operator expected”)
var=grep a b To assign the output of a command, use var=$(cmd)
(Bash says “a: command not found”)

 
ShellCheck can help with POSIX sh compliance and bashisms

When a script is declared with #!/bin/sh, ShellCheck checks for POSIX sh compliance, much like checkbashisms.

 
ShellCheck is free software, and can be used online and locally

ShellCheck is of course Free Software, and has a cute cli frontend in addition to the primary online version.

 
ShellCheck wants your feedback and suggestions!
Does ShellCheck give you incorrect suggestions? Does it fail to parse your working code? Is there something it could have warned about, but didn’t? After pasting a script on ShellCheck.net, a tiny “submit feedback” link appears in the top right of the annotated script area. Click it to submit the code plus your comments, and I can take a look!