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Archive for July, 2011

Why Bash is like that: suid

July 26th, 2011

Bash can seem pretty random and weird at times, but most of what people see as quirks have very logical (if not very good) explanations behind them. This series of posts looks at some of them.

Why can't bash scripts be SUID?

Bash scripts can’t run with the suid bit set. First of all, Linux doesn’t allow any scripts to be setuid, though some other OS do. Second, bash will detect being run as setuid, and immediately drop the privileges.

This is because shell script security is extremely dependent on the environment, much more so than regular C apps.

Take this script, for example, addmaildomain:

#!/bin/sh
[[ $1 ]] || { man -P cat $0; exit 1; } 

if grep -q "^$(whoami)\$" /etc/accesslist
then
    echo "$1" > /etc/mail/local-host-names
else
    echo "You don't have permissions to add hostnames"
fi

The intention is to allow users in /etc/accesslist to run addmaildomain example.com to write new names to local-host-names, the file which defines which domains sendmail should accept mail for.

Let’s imagine it runs as suid root. What can we do to abuse it?

We can start by setting the path:

echo "rm -rf /" > ~/hax/grep && chmod a+x ~/hax/grep
PATH=~/hax addmaildomain

Now the script will run our grep instead of the system grep, and we have full root access.

Let’s assume the author was aware of that, had set PATH=/bin:/usr/bin as the first line in the script. What can we do now?

We can override a library used by grep

gcc -shared -o libc.so.6 myEvilLib.c
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=. addmaildomain

When grep is invoked, it’ll link with our library and run our evil code.

Ok, so let’s say LD_LIBRARY_PATH is closed up.

If the shell is statically linked, we can set LD_TRACE_LOADED_OBJECTS=true. This will cause dynamically linked executables to print out a list of library dependencies and return true. This would cause our grep to always return true, subverting the test. The rest is builtin and wouldn’t be affected.

Even if the shell is statically compiled, all variables starting with LD_* will typically be stripped by the kernel for suid executables anyways.

There is a delay between the kernel starting the interpretter, and the interpretter opening the file. We can try to race it:

while true
do
    ln /usr/bin/addmaildomain foo
    nice -n 20 ./foo &
    echo 'rm -rf /' > foo
done

But let’s assume the OS uses a /dev/fd/* mechanism for passing a fd, instead of passing the file name.

We can rename the script to confuse the interpretter:

ln /usr/bin/addmaildomain ./-i
PATH=.
-i

Now we’ve created a link, which retains suid, and named it “-i”. When running it, the interpretter will run as “/bin/sh -i”, giving us an interactive shell.

So let’s assume we actually had “#!/bin/sh –” to prevent the script from being interpretted as an option.

If we don’t know how to use the command, it helpfully lists info from the man page for us. We can compile a C app that executes the script with “$0″ containing “-P /hax/evil ls”, and then man will execute our evil program instead of cat.

So let’s say “$0″ is quoted. We can still set MANOPT=-H/hax/evil.

Several of these attacks were based on the inclusion of ‘man’. Is this a particularly vulnerable command?

Perhaps a bit, but a whole lot of apps can be affected by the environment in more and less dramatic ways.

  • POSIXLY_CORRECT can make some apps fail or change their output
  • LANG/LC_ALL can thwart interpretation of output
  • LC_CTYPE and LC_COLLATE can modify string comparisons
  • Some apps rely on HOME and USER
  • Various runtimes have their own paths, like RUBY_PATH, LUA_PATH and PYTHONPATH
  • Many utilities have variables for adding default options, like RUBYOPT and MANOPT
  • Tools invoke EDITOR, VISUAL and PAGER under various circumstances

So yes, it’s better not to write suid shell scripts. Sudo is better than you at running commands safely.

Do remember that a script can invoke itself with sudo, if need be, for a simulated suid feel.

So wait, can’t perl scripts be suid?

They can indeed, but there the interpretter will run as the normal user and detect that the file is suid. It will then run a suid interpretter to deal with it.

Advanced Linux-related things, Security , ,

Why Bash is like that: Builtin or not

July 19th, 2011

Bash can seem pretty random and weird at times, but most of what people see as quirks have very logical (if not very good) explanations behind them. This series of posts looks at some of them.

# Why don't the options in "man time" work?
time -f %w myapp

Short answer: ‘time’ runs the builtin version, ‘man time’ shows the external version

time is a builtin in the shell, as well as an external command (this also goes for kill, pwd, and test). The man time shows info about the external command, while help time shows the internal one.

To run the external version, one can use command time or /usr/bin/time or just \time.

The reason why time is built in is so timing pipelines will work properly. time true | sleep 10 would say 0 seconds with an external command (which can’t know what it’s being piped into), and while the internal version can say 10 seconds since it knows about the whole pipeline.

POSIX leaves the behaviour of time a | b undefined.

# This finds the full path to ls. Why isn't there a 'man type'?
type -P ls

type is a bash builtin, not an external command. This allows it to take shell functions and aliases into account, something whereis can’t.

Builtins are documented in man bash, or more conveniently, “help type” (help is also a builtin).

Basic Linux-related things, Uncategorized , ,

Why Bash is like that: Order of expansion

July 12th, 2011

Bash can seem pretty random and weird at times, but most of what people see as quirks have very logical (if not very good) explanations behind them. This series of posts looks at some of them.

# Why can't you use variables in {}?
for i in {0..$n}; do ..

Short answer: {..} is expanded before $n

Shell execution is based on successive expansions. {..} is evaluated early, before variable expansion, and thus you can’t use variables in them.

This also implies that you can use {..} in variable names, like a1=foo; a2=bar; echo $a{1,2}.

Instead, use for ((i=0; i<n; i++)); do ....

# Why aren't any of the Linux rename tools like Windows 'ren'?
touch foo0001.jpg foo0002.jpg
ren foo*.jpg bar*.jpg        # Windows
rename foo bar foo*.jpg      # Coreutils rename
rename 's/foo/bar/' foo*.jpg # Perl (debian) rename

Short answer: globs are expanded before the command sees them

Bash expands globs before running the command. This means that running rename foo*.jpg bar*.jpg is exactly the same as running rename foo0000.jpg foo0001.jpg .... Since rename can’t know what pattern was originally used, it has to use an alternative syntax.

Of course, you could write a rename where you quote the globs, like rename "foo*.jpg" "bar*.jpg", but that’s not simpler than the coreutils version. It just adds complexity, edge cases and general confusion.

There have been proposals for environment variables to set so that commands can see the shell arguments with globs intact, but that has its own problems so they weren’t widely used.

Basic Linux-related things, Uncategorized , ,

Introducing the RIAA iScream

July 6th, 2011

Due to recent misuse of frozen goods, the RIAA has joined industry leaders in creating a new initiative: iScream!

Enjoy iScream wherever you are; at home, in your yard, and one other location of your choice (subject to restrictions, location must be preregistered, and can only be changed once per year).

It’s the perfect treat for a warm summer’s day, or at any celebration around the year, provided that no more than three people are present. iScream is only licensed for consumer use as a refreshing, frozen novelty food, and must therefore be enjoyed at an ambient temperature of at least 80F (26C).

iScream comes in three delicious flavours: vanilla, strawberry and spinach (vanilla and strawberry may be restricted in some areas, notably the Americas, Europe and Asia). Flavours may not be combined, and must be consumed within 24 hours of purchase.

The RIAA respects your individuality, and lets you make your iScream your own with the choice of one of two toppings, peanuts or walnuts. One of these approved toppings are required for consuming iScream, so individuals with nut allergies are adviced to select the one to which they respond the least.

In the past, RIAA has been critizised for not listening to consumers, and failing to keep up with modern trends in frozen treats. Therefore, you may now create an iScream Float by combining your iScream with a licensed and compatible bottle of natural spring water.

The RIAA is confident that iScream covers all reasonable consumer scenarios in a simple and convenient way. There is now a legal and respectable alternative to unlicensed frozen treat consumption, and the RIAA is working with law enforcement to allow violators to be shot on sight. We look forward to your continued cooperation!

 

Frequently asked questions about iScream:

- Can I use iScream as a comfort food after a relationship breakup?
- The iScream is not licensed for use as a comfort food. You can instead celebrate your new-found independence by checking “Celebration” in part 7B of your application form.

- Can I use iScream in my car?
- You sure can! Simply set your custom enjoyment location to a parking space at a rest stop you frequent. Whenever you want to enjoy iScream in your car, simply park in this spot and enjoy. Note that your custom enjoyment location must be a stationary position, otherwise people could select the car itself, and simply drive into other people’s homes to enjoy iScream there, in violation of the agreement (section 14, page 73).

- In my area, summers often don’t reach over 80F (26C). Can I still enjoy iScream?
- Of course! Simply set your indoor thermostat to 80F, and enjoy all the iScream you want in the comfort of your own home!

Random ideas

Why Bash is like that: Command expansion

July 5th, 2011

Bash can seem pretty random and weird at times, but most of what people see as quirks have very logical (if not very good) explanations behind them. This series of posts looks at some of them.

# Why does esc contain "x1B" instead of the escape char?
esc=`printf \\x1B`

Short answer: “ requires another level of backslash escaping

To embed a backtick inside “, you escape it with a backslash. To embed a backslash, you escape it with another backslash. So `printf \\x1B` actually runs printf \x1B, and the shell interprets \x as a literal x with a superfluous escape. In other words, printf just sees “x1B”, and that’s what you get.

The problem grows exponentially as you try to nest ` `.

$(..) has distinct start and stop characters, so they can be used and nested without adding layers of backslashes. In this particular case you’d use esc=$'\x1B', and in general you could use esc=$(printf \\x1B).

# Why is newline empty instead of containing the line feed character?
newline=$(printf "\n")
echo "hello${newline}world"

Short answer: “ and $(..) strips trailing line feeds

$(..) and “ always strip trailing line feeds from command output. This is that special kind of magic that works so well you never think about it. echo “Hello $(whoami), how are you?” comes out as one line even though “whoami” (and basically all other commands) writes the username followed by a line feed.

This causes problems here because the output is only a single \n, i.e. the empty string followed by a trailing line feed. In this case, you’d again use newline=$'\n', but you could also have done newline=$(printf '\n'; printf x); newline=${newline#x} (append a x and then remove it), so that the line feeds in the output aren’t trailing.

# Bonus: Exercise for the reader
# Try adding the appropriate quotes and
# escapes to this quote normalization example
normalized=`echo ``Go on'', he said | sed -e s/`/'/g`

The variable should contain ''Go on'', he said. Can you get it right on the first try?

Basic Linux-related things , ,